In a surf session a surfer can spend an incredible 54% of their time in the water paddling! The rest of the time we are waiting for waves and only 8% of our time is spent riding waves. 1
Improving our paddling efficiency can make a dramatic improvement in performance and enjoyment of our sessions. The better we are at paddling the more waves we can enjoy while surfing!
If you’ve ever wanted to know how you could improve your paddling and catch more waves read on below to find out more.
Today’s article will firstly break down the phases of paddling and the anatomy of the shoulder muscles involved. Later we will then discuss different techniques of paddling, the top exercises you can do to improve your paddling and lastly a video analysis of one of the greatest of all time Kelly Slater.
Paddling can be divided into 2 main types. One where we are paddling to get out the back or move into position for a wave and the second sprint paddling which is used to catch a wave, duck dive under an oncoming set or to get out of someones way.
Improving your paddling efficiency can also reduce the risk of developing shoulder rotator cuff related pain (Surfer’s Shoulder). This ultimately means that you can catch more waves, be less injured and share the stoke of being in the water for longer.
Phases of Paddling
Paddling movements can be broken down into 4 phases:
1) Entry or Catch Phase
The entry or catch phase is the first part of your stroke when the hand enters the water. As your hand enters the water it creates a surface area and initial contact from which we are able create the drive to push our surfboard forwards through the water .
It’s important that your fingertips enter the water first, with a high elbow and a relaxed hand. This will enable less drag if your fingertips enter first rather than the palm of the hand (see the paddling video analysis below).
During the catch phase the Rotator Cuff and surrounding shoulder muscles begin to fire to preset and control the downward movement of the ball (humerus) in the socket of your shoulder (glenoid fossa).
The most important muscles to develop in the catch phase are our Rotator Cuff: Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Subscapularis and Teres Minor. Deltoid and Latissmus Dorsi
2) Pull Phase
Allow your arm to sink down before initiating the pull phase. A common mistake is to start pulling too early at the initial part of the stroke, using excess energy and increasing the demand on the rotator cuff.
During the pull phase it’s important to have a slight bend in the elbow. This allows use our arm as a larger lever to pull water underneath the board and engage our chest muscles better.
The most important muscles to develop in this stage are our Pectoralis Major and Minor, Biceps, Latissimus Dorsi, Lower Trapezius, Rhomboids, Deltoid and Rotator Cuff.
3) Exit Phase
During this phase of the stroke helps we generate the propulsion and the forward momentum in the water. This phase is often forgotten in it’s importance and more powerful paddlers have a strong exit phase.
The most important muscles to develop in this stage are our Triceps, Posterior Deltoid, Trapezius, Rhomboids
4) Recovery Phase
This phase is important to allow relaxation as the arm swings through. In beginners we tend to see to much effort or energy is wasted during this phase. Allow the arm to swing round low and aim the hand to land close to the front rail before our fingertips enter the water again.
The most important muscles to work in this stage are our Deltoids, Upper and Lower Trapezius, Serratus Anterior and the Rotator Cuff.
Exercises to improve your paddling
The following exercises help to strengthen the muscles that are involved in paddling
- Chin Ups
- Lat Pull Downs
- Single arm incline pull /row
- Lying on a table prone cable single arm or alternating pulls or Internal rotation
- Cable straight arm shoulder extension
- Tricep extensions or Rope pull downs
- Cobra Push Ups
- Tricep dips Bench/Rings/TRX
- Prone double arm or single arm banded lat pulldowns with slowed recovery to starting position
- Prone Y, W or T movements with dumbbells
- Push up plus (Serratus Anterior)
Triceps dips on rings are a challenging exercise to develop triceps and posterior shoulder strength
Chin Ups on rings are excellent to develop lats and posterior shoulder strength for stronger paddling
Interval Rowing can develop pulling power and cardiovascular fitness for paddle endurance or power
Paddling Video Analysis
Key Points to improve your paddling:
- Reduce Drag: Keep your head still to reduce side to side sway, feet together. Allow for slight side to side roll of board along an axis to reduce drag.
- Fingertips Entry: Relaxed hand, elbow out of water as fingertips enter the water first,
- Focus your energy on Pull/Exit Phase rather than initial catch phase to create more efficient propulsion. Pull with a slight bend in your elbow, paddle close to your rail and your hand comes slightly under your board.
If you enjoy the videos then check out more from Rob Case at Xswimfit http://www.xswimfit.com/videos/